William Hevener, RPSGT1, Bretton Beine, BA, RPSGT1, John Woodruff1, Dominic Munafo, MD1, Chris Fernandez, MS2, Sam Rusk, BS2, Yoav Nygate, MS2, Nick Glattard, MS2, David Piper, BS2, Connor Sheedy, BS2, Matt Simpson, BS2, Fred Turkington, BS2, Mehdi Shokoueinejad, PhD3
Clinical management of CPAP adherence remains an ongoing challenge. Behavioral and technical interventions such as patient outreach, coaching, troubleshooting, and resupply may be deployed to positively impact adherence. Previous authors have described adherence phenotypes that retrospectively categorize patients by discrete usage patterns. We design an AI model that predictively categorizes patients into previously studied adherence phenotypes and analyzes the statistical significance and effect size of several types of interventions on subsequent CPAP adherence.
We collected a cross-sectional cohort of subjects (N = 13,917) with 455 days of daily CPAP usage data acquired. Patient outreach notes and resupply data were temporally synchronized with daily CPAP usage. Each 30-days of usage was categorized into one of four adherence phenotypes as defined by Aloia et al. (2008) including Good Users, Variable Users, Occasional Attempters, and Non-Users. Cross-validation was used to train and evaluate a Recurrent Neural Network model for predicting future adherence phenotypes based on the dynamics of prior usage patterns. Two-sided 95% bootstrap confidence intervals and Cohen’s d statistic were used to analyze the significance and effect size of changes in usage behavior 30-days before and after administration of several resupply interventions.
The AI model predicted the next 30-day adherence phenotype with an average of 90% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 95% accuracy, and 0.83 Cohen’s Kappa. The AI model predicted the number of days of CPAP non-use, use under 4-hours, and use over 4-hours for the next 30-days with OLS Regression R-squared values of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.95 compared to ground truth. Ten resupply interventions were associated with statistically significant increases in adherence, and ranked by adherence effect size using Cohen’s d. The most impactful were new cushions or masks, with a mean post-intervention CPAP adherence increase of 7-14% observed in Variable User, Occasional Attempter, and Non-User groups.
The AI model applied past CPAP usage data to predict future adherence phenotypes and usage with high sensitivity and specificity. We identified resupply interventions that were associated with significant increases in adherence for struggling patients. This work demonstrates a novel application for AI to aid clinicians in maintaining CPAP adherence.